Planning and delivery of health services – an article review on urban aboriginal mobility in Canada: examining the association with healthcare utilization

Author: Ankit Dhawan

Article Summary

An article from Social Science and Medicine, written by Snyder and Wilson (2012), examined the use of healthcare services by urban Aboriginal populations in Canada. Using the Behavioural Model of Health Services Use (BMHSU; Andersen & Newman, 1973), predisposing, enabling and need factors were organized and used for data analysis. Specifically, a comparison was made between conventional (physicians and nurses) and traditional (traditional healers) health service utilization in Toronto and Winnipeg (Snyder & Wilson, 2012). In addition to the geographical and educational factors, the results of the research recognized mobility as a significant predisposing complement to healthcare utilization.

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Storytelling and Asperger Syndrome: A Key for Social Integration

Author: Alain Nathan Sahin

Abstract

Storytelling is a universal way of communication between human beings. It is inhibited when neurodevelopmental disorders hinder human reciprocity, the understanding of body language, and nuances of language. Asperger Syndrome (AS), one of these disorders, is characterized by social impairment and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Messages cannot be conveyed through storytelling, which causes social isolation and withdrawal of individuals with AS from society. The development of the mirror neuron system in the brain, which incites imitation of peers, might be altered in AS by a mechanism that is not entirely understood. Because mirroring the emotions of others is key to understanding their feelings and perceptions of the world, the “theory of mind” is not formed in individuals with AS, as it normally would be. While studies have suggested this impediment, current views and evidence show that people with AS may use storytelling as a powerful tool to integrate themselves into society. Future research should investigate storytelling as an intervention to increase social interaction of individuals with AS.

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Coffee Does Not Cause Cancer, but Hot Drinks Might

Coffee drinkers can sip a little easier now that the World Health Organization has downgraded coffee’s cancer risk. Due to inadequate evidence and inconsistent findings, consumers no longer need to worry about their morning cup of Joe. In fact, drinking coffee may actually protect consumers from several chronic diseases.

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Obesity Begins in the Womb

If you were asked “how much weight should a woman gain during pregnancy?” you might posit a guess around 15 or 20 pounds. In reality, it’s not that simple. The amount depends on her pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). As such, in 2009, The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released gestational weight gain recommendations for each BMI category (Table 1). These recommendations were published to promote adequate foetal growth and reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (Rasmussen & Yaktine, 2013). Total recommended weight gain during pregnancy ranges from 28-40 pounds for underweight women and 11-20 pounds for obese women (Rasmussen & Yaktine, 2013). However, many women are not meeting these guidelines and 58% of Canadian women are surpassing them (Ferraro et al., 2012). Currently, obesity is recognized as a global public health concern with no signs of slowing down (NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, 2016). Is gestational weight gain a contributing factor?

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Ins and outs of cancer screening

 

It’s estimated that approximately 2 in 5 Canadians will develop cancer during their lifetime, and that 1 in 4 will die from the disease1. Cancer affects or touches almost everyone in this country in some way, and a lot of research has gone into preventing and treating the disease. The overall 5-year survival rate for all cancers in Canada was 63% for 2006-20081. It’s well known that cancers that are caught early have a higher chance of successful treatment and survival. One of the ways that we can diagnose these early-stage cancers is through screening.

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MCR-1: The consequence of antibiotic misuse and evolving resistance

According to a recent paper published the Lancet, a superbug gene that confers resistance to colistin, an antibiotic used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections when all other drugs fail, has been discovered in China (Liu et al., 2016; TheStar, 2016). The gene in question, called MCR-1, was found in E.coli in samples from meat, hospital patients, and livestock in southeastern China. Given that China is among the countries with the highest colistin use in agriculture, resistance to the drug may have originated in that part of the world; however, new reports show that the gene is not restricted to China as the following countries have similarly discovered MCR-1 in bacterial DNA: Algeria, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Laos, Portugal, Thailand, The Netherlands, and Wales (TheStar, 2016). Some of the bacterial DNA analyzed and found positive for the MCR-1 gene was derived from specimens archived before 2015; therefore, dissemination of the gene has outpaced discovery, and the issue at hand may already be an international crisis.

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Transmission of Human Papillomavirus Without Sexual Contact

Authors: Naweed Ahmed, Wakqas Kayani, Sahab Jamshidi, Suneil Bapat, Ahmed ImamovicPanteha Tavassol

Abstract

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. There are four common HPV strains: 6, 11, 16, and 18. Strains 6 and 11 cause genital warts, while strains 16 and 18 are asymptomatic in males and may progress to cervical cancer in females. Although uncommon, a small percentage of males and females have been diagnosed with HPV without previous sexual contact. In this case report, we discuss a case conducted on a 15-year-old South Asian male who contracted an unknown low-risk strain of HPV with no history of sexual contact.

HPV is highly infectious, however in the majority of cases the immune system is able to clear the infection, preventing the appearance of genital warts. In cases such as these, it is important to help control the spread of viral infections. Several determinants of health are involved in and affect the transmission of HPV, including income and social status, social support networks, education and literacy, culture, social and physical environments, and health services. To aid in the prevention of HPV, sexual education should be taught at early ages within schools and the Gardasil® vaccine should be administered to both females and males at an early age to reduce the burden of disease and the incidence of HPV.

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Special Election Episode / Episode spécial de l’élection

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Stephen Kutcher and Raywat Deonandan discuss the upcoming Canadian federal election, focusing on issues relevant to health scientists. This episode is entirely in English.

Stephen Kutcher et Raywat Deonandan discuter de la prochaine élection fédérale canadienne, en se concentrant sur des questions pertinentes aux spécialistes de la santé. Cet épisode est entièrement en anglais.

CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS: WINTER 2016 – THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH

Call for Submissions   

Winter 2016: The Determinants of Health

Submission criteria

Submission criteria are based on the twelve determinants of health as outlined by Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada. Upon submission, authors should clearly identify which determinant of health is associated with their paper and the nature of the relationship – how is the subject related to human health through the chosen determinant of health?

Abstracts must be sent electronically to riss.ijhs.peerreview@gmail.com no later than November 15, 2015.

Abstract guidelines

  • Title: 25 word limit
  • Length: 250 word limit
  • Authors: Name every contributing author, using their full names.
  • References: No references are to be included in the abstract.

Types of submissions

Submissions may include an original research article, an essay, or a review paper, in English or French. The word limit does not include the abstract or references.

  • Original articles: 4000 word limit
    • Either quantitative or qualitative
    • Includes review articles, case reports, literature reviews and clinical experiments.
  • Article, Book or Media reviews: 1000 word limit
  • Essay: 1250 word limit

For more information, please visit our basic formatting criteria page.

 You will have until January 15, 2016, to submit your manuscript via the Open Journal System (OJS). Manuscripts will be peer-reviewed and selected articles will be published in the regular or special issues of the IJHS. As the IJHS is a bilingual and an open-access endeavour, every abstract will be translated and all articles will be freely accessible to the public.

Client (non-) adherence to treatment: A challenge in Peru and Canada

In July and August 2015, I completed a medical volunteer trip in Lima with the organization International Volunteer HQ. I wanted to experience a different health care system and practice my skills as a nursing student. In Peru, poverty creates a large barrier from accessing healthcare for a significant portion of the population. To increase access to care, the government of the Callao region has installed a “clinibus” program which I was involved in. It consists of a bus that travels to different areas providing specialist care. The government covers the cost of visits and most medications; however many clients do not follow the prescribed treatment. During my time in Peru, I observed a lack of information on how to administer treatments, limited understanding of the importance of routine treatment, and distrust of health care professionals.

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